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Correlations from outside space-time


In this page, you find a section of scientific publications presenting some experiments that demonstrate effects that come from outside space-time.You find also a section of comments for the general public. Some of these documents are available on line.

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2012: Empty waves, many worlds, parallel lives, and nonlocal decision at detection

Antoine Suarez

arXiv:1204.1732 [quant-ph]

The “Single-photon space-like antibunching” experiment demonstrates that conservation of energy in each single event implies nonlocal coordination of detections: the most fundamental principle ruling the material visible world emerges from non-material invisible principles.



2012: Single-photon space-like antibunching

Thiago Guerreiro, Bruno Sanguinetti, Hugo Zbinden, Nicolas Gisin, and Antoine Suarez

Physics Letters A 376 (2012) 2174–2177
arXiv:1204.1712 [quant-ph]

The experiment (proposed 2010 by A. Suarez and completed 2012 by the group of N. Gisin) uses heralded single photons to perform an antibunching experiment in which the clicks at the detectors are spacelike separated events. The idea of such experiment dates back to the 5th Solvay conference, when it was proposed by Einstein as an expression of his concerns about quantum theory.



2008: Quantum randomness can be controlled by free will -a consequence of the before-before experiment.

Antoine Suarez

arXiv: 0804.0871v1 [quant-ph]

The before-before experiment demonstrates that quantum randomness can be controlled by influences from outside spacetime, and therefore by immaterial free will. Rather than looking at quantum physics as the model for explaining free will, one should look at free will as a primitive principle for explaining why the laws of Nature are quantum.



2008: Nonlocal "Realistic" Leggett Models Can be Considered Refuted by the Before-Before Experiment

Antoine Suarez

Found Phys (2008) 38: 583-589 DOI 10.1007/s10701-008-9228-y

Nonlocal "realistic" Leggett models can be considered refuted by the before-before experiment. "Single preferred frame" models are not refuted by this experiment but bear severe oddities.



2007: Classical Demons and Quantum Angels: On 't Hooft's deterministic Quantum Mechanics

Antoine Suarez

arXiv:0705.3974v1 [quant-ph]

The article discusses the free will assumption in quantum mechanics, and proposes the quantum homeostasis hypothesis for explaining consciousness and sleep.


It is argued that 't Hooft's deterministic program does not disenchant the quantum world but rather inspires the incantation of the classical one.


2003: Entanglement and Time

Antoine Suarez


Article about the implications of the experiments with moving measuring devices.


It is argued that recent experiments testing Multisimultaneity prove that quantum entanglement occurs without the flow of time. Bohm's theory cannot be considered a real temporal description.



2003: Quantum entanglement with acousto-optic modulators: Two-photon beats and Bell experiments with moving beam splitters.

André Stefanov, Hugo Zbinden, Nicolas Gisin and Antoine Suarez.
Physical Review. A, volume 67, 042115.

Full-length article about the experiment using acoustic waves as moving beam-splitters.
We present an experiment testing quantum correlations with frequency shifted photons. We test Bell inequality with two-photon interferometry where we replace the beam splitters with acousto-optic modulators, which are equivalent to moving beam splitters. We measure the two-photon beats induced by the frequency shifts, and we propose a cryptographic scheme in relation. Finally, setting the experiment in a relativistic configuration, we demonstrate that the quantum correlations are not only independent of the distance but also of the time ordering between the two single-photon measurements.


2002: Quantum Correlations With Moving Observers.

N. Gisin, V. Scarani, A. Stefanov, A. Suarez, W. Tittel and H. Zbinden

Optics & Photonics News, December 2002, 51.

Short presentation of the experiments with moving devices.

The experiments with moving measuring devices can be considered a fundamental test of quantum mechanics and information. The December issue of Optics and Photonics News highlighted some of the most exciting research to emerge in during 2002. The GAP-Optics experiments studying the quantum correlations with moving observers was a first for a new kind of experiment to test quantum non-locality.


2002: Quantum Correlations with Spacelike Separated Beam Splitters in Motion: Experimental Test of Multisimultaneity.

André Stefanov, Hugo Zbinden, and Nicolas Gisin - Antoine Suarez.

Physical Review Letters volume 88, number 12. 
Article about the experiment using acoustic waves as moving beam-splitters.


Multisimultaneity is a causal model of relativistic quantum physics which assigns a real time ordering to any set of events, much in the spirit of the pilot-wave picture. Contrary to standard quantum mechanics, it predicts a disappearance of the correlations in a Bell-type experiment when both analyzers are in relative motion such that each one, in its own inertial reference frame, is first to select the output of the photons. We tested this prediction using acousto-optic modulators as moving beam splitters and interferometers separated by 55 m. We did not observe any disappearance of the correlations, in agreement with quantum mechanics.


2001: Is there a time ordering behind nonlocal correlations?

Antoine Suarez.


Article discussing the results of the experiments with moving beam-splitters.


It is argued that recent experiments with moving beam-splitters demonstrate that there is no real time ordering behind the nonlocal correlations. In Bell's world there is no "before" and "after".


2001: Experimental test of nonlocal quantum correlations in relativistic configurations.

H. Zbinden, J. Brendel, N. Gisin, and W. Tittel.

Phys. Rev. A, 63.022111.

Article describing the before-before experiment using a detector in motion.


We report on an experimental investigation of the tension between quantum nonlocality and relativity. Entangled photons are sent via an optical fiber network to two villages near Geneva, separated by more than 10 km where they are analyzed by interferometers. The photon pair source is set as precisely as possible in the center so that the two photons arrive at the detectors within a time interval of less than 5 ps (corresponding to a path length difference of less than 1 mm). One detector is set in motion so that both detectors, each in its own inertial reference frame, are first to do the measurement! The data always reproduces the quantum correlations, making it thus more difficult to consider the projection postulate as a compact description of real collapses of the wave function.


2000: Quantum mechanics versus multisimultaneity in experiments with acousto-optic choice-devices.

Antoine Suarez.

Phys. Lett. A, 269, 293-302.

Article proposing "before-before" and "after-after" experiments using acoustic waves as moving beam-splitters.


It is argued that acousto-optic cells act as moving beam-splitters because the velocity corresponding to the Doppler-shift of the reflected photons defines a natural frame in which it is possible to evaluate unambiguously whether the choice between reflection and transmission is before or after. New experimental tests of Multisimultaneity are discussed.




1997: Does entanglement depend on the timing of the impacts at the beam-splitters?

A. Suarez and V. Scarani

Phys.Lett. A, 232, 9-14 390 (, and quant-ph/9704038.

First article to propose experiments using measuring devices in motion and the relativistic “before-before” timing.


A new nonlocality experiment with moving beam-splitters is proposed. The experiment is analyzed according to conventional quantum mechanics, and to an alternative nonlocal description (Multisimultaneity) in which superposition depends not only on indistinguishability but also on the timing of the impacts at the beam-splitters.

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2007: Free will - is our understanding wrong?

Zeeya Merali

New Scientist No. 2615, 04 August 2007


Magazine-article presenting the before-before experiment with beam-splitters in motion, and commenting that Quantum Mechanics beats both, time and ‘t Hooft’s deterministic view.

Corrections to the experiment’s description in the New Scientist’s article

2003: Le temps est différent des propriétés qu'on lui attribue

Etienne Klein interviewed

Science et Vie, January 2003


Etienne Klein comments the results of the Geneva experience testing Multisimultaneity and concludes that the quantum correlation is caused without any flow of time but, once produced, it becomes engraved in time.


2003: Le temps n'existe pas !

Hervé Poirier

Science et Vie, January 2003


Magazine article on the experiments with moving apparatuses stressing that in the realm of the nonlocal quantum phenomena things come to pass but the time doesn't seem to pass here. The article points out also the relevance of quantum entanglement for practical applications as cryptography.


2002: Quantum correlations with spacelike beamsplitters in motion

André Stefanov


Contribution presenting the experiment with moving beam-splitters to the Young Researchers Competition in Honor of John Archibald Wheeler, organized by the Templeton Foundation in Princeton, March 15-18, 2002.


2001: Spooky twins survive Einsteinian torture.

Ch. Seife.

Science, Vol. 294, 9 November 2001.


Magazine-article commenting the results of the experiments with moving beam-splitters and highlighting the conclusion that the notion of time does not make sense in the quantum world, quantum entanglement cannot be described in terms of before and after.


2001: Corrélations quantiques insensibles à l'espace et au temps.
Nicolas Gisin, André Stefanov, Antoine Suarez, Hugo Zbinden.

Communiqué de presse du 31.10.2001 sur l'expérience avec appareils en mouvement.


Full text in French: communique_de_presse.doc (MS Word).


2001: Quantum Correlations insensitive to space and time.
Nicolas Gisin, André Stefanov, Antoine Suarez, Hugo Zbinden.

Press-communiqué dated 31.10.2001 about the experiment with moving measuring devices.

Full text in English: press_communique.doc (MS Word).

2000: 'Spooky Action' Passes a Relativistic Test.

Ch. Seife.

Science, Vol. 287, 17 March 2000.


Magazine-article commenting the results of the experiments with moving detectors and stressing the relevance of testing Quantum Mechanics against Multisimultaneity in experiments using measuring devices in motion.


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Last updated on 26 February 2015.